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While eating too much sugar is directly associated with obesity and a host of heart and liver-related problems, there are plenty of myths out there with a host of misinformation that oftentimes makes eating even moderate amounts of sugar sound worse than it is. After all, we do need sugar to live. 尽管吃糖太多和肥胖以及一系列心脏和肝脏疾病直接相关,但关于糖还是有很多讹传,往往使得适量吃糖听上去比实际上更糟。说到底,没有糖怎么活?
"We all need sugar — it's the basic building block of what runs our bodies, and, in fact, it's necessary," Dr. Jennifer Haythe, a cardiologist at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York said.“我们都需要糖——它是我们身体运转的基本组成部分,事实上,是必不可少的部分,”纽约哥伦比亚长老会医院的心脏病科医师珍妮佛•海耶斯博士说。
Keep scrolling to discover the truth behind some of the most common myths about sugar. 来看看下面这些关于糖的真相,帮你破除对糖的常见误解。
MYTH: Some types of sugar are better for you than others 误解:有些糖比其他糖更有益健康

FACT: All "types" of sugar have the same effect on your body. 事实:所有种类的糖对身体的影响都一样。
"There’s this idea that there are different types of sugar, but that’s a myth," Dr. Haythe said. "Brown sugar, white sugar, honey... they are all ultimately broken down into the same thing: glucose. All forms of sugar are carbohydrates that can be used as glucose." 海耶斯博士说:“有人认为,世界上有不同种类的糖,这是一个误解。红糖、白糖、蜂蜜……最终成分都是同一种东西——葡萄糖。各种形式的糖都是可分解成葡萄糖被吸收的碳水化合物。”
MYTH: Sugar makes kids hyperactive 误解:糖会导致儿童过度活跃

FACT: There's no such thing as a sugar high. 事实:糖并不会引起亢奋。
"The idea that sugar makes children hyperactive is one of the funniest myths about sugar out there," Dr. Haythe said. 海耶斯博士说:“认为糖导致儿童过度活跃只是人们关于糖的一个有趣误解。”
Various scientific studies over the years have determined that in fact there is zero direct connection between eating sugar and hyperactivity. 多年来各种科学研究表明,事实上,吃糖和过度活跃不存在任何直接的联系。
MYTH: Sugar is as addictive as hard drugs 误解:糖和硬性毒品一样会让人上瘾

FACT: There is no conclusive evidence that sugar is addictive. 事实:并没有确凿的证据证明糖会让人上瘾。
"There's no evidence that sugar can act as a gateway drug," Dr. Haythe said. "You can't get high from sugar, and there's no conclusive evidence that sugar is addictive." 海耶斯博士说:“没有证据证明糖可以当作入门级毒品。吃糖不会亢奋,而且也没有确凿证据证明吃糖会上瘾。”
MYTH: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes 误解:吃太多糖会得糖尿病

FACT: Both types of diabetes are caused by a mix of genetics and environmental factors, but a sugary diet cannot directly cause it (alone). 事实:两种类型的糖尿病都是由基因和环境因素综合导致的,但是单单是多糖饮食并不会直接导致糖尿病。
"Eating sugar does not cause diabetes; it’s a complicated problem involving your pancreas and metabolism," Dr. Haythe said. "When you have diabetes, you don't produce enough insulin. Insulin helps the glucose get absorbed into your bloodstream and liver as usable energy." 海耶斯博士说:“吃糖不会导致糖尿病;糖尿病是涉及胰腺和代谢功能的复杂病症。如果你有糖尿病,你的身体就不能分泌足够的胰岛素。胰岛素能帮助葡萄糖被血液和肝脏吸收,从而转化成可被利用的能量。”
You are more likely to develop diabetes if you are overweight or obese, because extra fat can lead to insulin resistance, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. This makes a diet heavy in sugar an indirect, rather than a direct cause of type 2 diabetes. 据美国国立糖尿病、消化和肾脏疾病研究所称,如果你超重或肥胖,你患上糖尿病的可能性更大,因为多余的脂肪会引发胰岛素抵抗。这使得多糖饮食成为导致ll型糖尿病的间接而非直接的原因。
MYTH: Artificial sweeteners are better for you than sugar 误解:相比糖,人工甜味剂对身体更好

FACT: Some artificial sweeteners can be just as harmful to your body as sugar. 事实:一些人工甜味剂对身体的危害跟糖不相上下。
Although artificial sweeteners like Stevia, Truvia, and aspartame (as found in diet sodas) have fewer calories than their sugary counterparts, research shows that participants who drink diet soda are twice as likely to be obese than those who do not. 尽管像无糖汽水中含有的甜菊糖、赤藻糖、阿斯巴甜等人工甜味剂比天然糖热量更低,但研究显示,喝无糖汽水的人肥胖的可能性比不喝无糖汽水的人高一倍。
A study published in the National Library of Medicine found that saccharine — an artificial sweetener — is more addictive than cocaine. Another study published by the American Diabetes Association found that diet soda drinkers were 67 percent more likely to develop diabetes than non-diet soda drinkers. 在国家医学图书馆发表的一项研究发现,人工甜味剂糖精比可卡因更容易让人上瘾。美国糖尿病协会发表的另一项研究发现,喝无糖饮料的人得糖尿病的可能性比不喝无糖饮料的人高67%。
MYTH: Sugar causes cavities 误解:糖导致蛀牙

FACT: Cavities are actually caused by acidic foods and drinks that wear away the enamel on your teeth. 事实:蛀牙实际上是由酸性食物和饮料导致的,酸性物质会腐蚀牙齿上的釉质。
"Sugar isn’t the cause of tooth decay; acid is," Dr. Mark Burhenne, of the online "Ask a Dentist" community, said. "The most cavity-causing food is crackers and breads, not candy. When you eat something with sugar, bacteria that naturally reside in your mouth consume this sugar as well. Bacteria’s waste product is acid, so after they have a meal, they excrete acid....Acid decalcifies or demineralizes tooth enamel by taking away its structure, creating decay." “问牙医”网络社区的马克•布尔亨内医生说:“导致蛀牙的不是糖,而是酸。最容易导致蛀牙的食物是饼干和面包,不是糖。当你吃含糖食物时,口腔内的天然细菌也在‘吃糖’。细菌排出的废物是酸,所以在吃完饭后,细菌都会产生酸……这些酸性物质会腐蚀牙齿的外结构,从而使牙釉质脱落,导致蛀牙。”
MYTH: You should eliminate all sugar from your diet 误解:你应该完全不吃糖

FACT: Humans need glucose to survive. 事实:人类需要葡萄糖才能生存。
Of course, having too much sugar will lead to the problems we discussed above, like weight gain and long term health problems. But, glucose is essential to our body. 当然,吃太多糖会导致我们上面所说的问题,比如体重增加和慢性疾病。但是,葡萄糖对我们的身体至关重要。
"This idea that sugar is inherently bad for you is a myth," Dr. Haythe said. "We all need sugar; that's the basic block of what runs our bodies. It's necessary to survive. 海耶斯博士说:“糖对身体本质上不好是个误解。我们都需要糖,这是让人体运转的基本组成部分。糖是让我们存活的必需物质。”
MYTH: Sugar is the root of all of your health problems 误解:糖是各种身体问题的根源

FACT: Sugar is rarely the only reason behind obesity and heart disease. 事实:糖并不是肥胖和心脏病背后的唯一原因。
There's no doubt that sugar is a contributing factor to obesity. But it isn't the only thing to consider when trying to lead a healthy lifestyle. 糖无疑是导致肥胖的原因之一,但如果要过上健康的生活,糖并不是唯一要考虑的因素。
"Sugary foods happen to have lots of calories, and are usually heavily processed," Dr. Haythe said. "It's simple — if you eat a lot of calories, you'll gain weight and become unhealthy." 海耶斯博士说:“含糖食物热量都很高,而且通常是深加工食品。事情很简单:如果你摄入很多热量,体重自然会增加,然后变得不健康。”

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